- •The study confirms an association between Parkinson's disease and changes in gastrointestinal microbiota.
- •Fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are reduced in Parkinson's disease.
- •The reduction in SCFA is consistent with the altered gut microbiota composition.
- •The reduction in SCFA might contribute to gastrointestinal dysmotility in Parkinson's disease.
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently have gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. constipation) and exhibit the PD-typical pathohistology in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Both, clinical symptoms and pathohistological changes in the ENS occur at early stages and can precede the motor manifestations of PD. Two recent studies reported an association between changes in gut microbiota composition and PD. We hypothesized that alterations in gut microbiota might be accompanied by altered concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), one main metabolic product of gut bacteria.
We quantitatively analyzed SCFA concentrations (using gas chromatography) and microbiota composition (using quantitative PCR) in fecal samples of 34 PD patients and 34 age-matched controls.
Fecal SCFA concentrations were significantly reduced in PD patients compared to controls. The bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes and the bacterial family Prevotellaceae were reduced, Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in fecal samples from PD patients compared to matched controls.
Our study confirms the recently reported association between PD and the abundance of certain gut microbiota and shows a reduction in fecal SCFA concentrations (one main metabolic product of certain gut bacteria). The reduction in SCFA might, theoretically, induce alterations in the ENS and contribute to gastrointestinal dysmotility in PD. Prospective longitudinal studies in subjects at risk for PD are required to further elucidate the causal role of gut microbiota and microbial products in the development of PD and PD-associated dysmotility.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- The distribution of Lewy bodies in the central and autonomic nervous systems in idiopathic paralysis agitans.J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 1960; 23: 283-290
- Gastric alpha-synuclein immunoreactive inclusions in Meissner's and Auerbach's plexuses in cases staged for Parkinson's disease-related brain pathology.Neurosci. Lett. 2006; 396: 67-72
- Parkinson's disease: an immunohistochemical study of Lewy body-containing neurons in the enteric nervous system.Acta Neuropathol. 1990; 79: 581-583
- Parkinson's disease: the presence of Lewy bodies in Auerbach's and Meissner's plexuses.Acta Neuropathol. 1988; 76: 217-221
- Lewy bodies in the enteric nervous system in Parkinson's disease.Arch. Histol. Cytol. 1989; 52: 191-194
- Impaired gastric emptying of a solid test meal in patients with Parkinson's disease using 13C-sodium octanoate breath test.Neurosci. Lett. 2005; 375: 170-173
- Patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder show normal gastric motility assessed by the 13C-octanoate breath test.Mov. Disord. 2011; 26: 2559-2563
- Gastric emptying time and gastric motility in patients with Parkinson's disease.Mov. Disord. 2001; 16: 1041-1047
- Meta-analysis of early nonmotor features and risk factors for Parkinson disease.Ann. Neurol. 2012; 72: 893-901
- Gastrointestinal manifestations in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and occurrence before motor symptoms.J. Neurol. 2013; 260: 1332-1338
- Parkinson's disease: a dual-hit hypothesis.Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 2007; 33: 599-614
- Progression of Parkinson's disease pathology is reproduced by intragastric administration of rotenone in mice.PLoS One. 2010; 5: e8762
- Environmental toxins trigger PD-like progression via increased alpha-synuclein release from enteric neurons in mice.Sci. Rep. 2012; 2: 898
- Gut microbiota are related to Parkinson's disease and clinical phenotype.Mov. Disord. 2015; : 350-358
- Colonic bacterial composition in Parkinson's disease.Mov. Disord. 2015; : 1351-1360
- Short-chain fatty acids regulate the enteric neurons and control gastrointestinal motility in rats.Gastroenterology. 2010; 138: 1772-1782
- Increased intestinal permeability correlates with sigmoid mucosa alpha-synuclein staining and endotoxin exposure markers in early Parkinson's disease.PLoS One. 2011; 6: e28032
- Structural alterations of the intestinal epithelial barrier in Parkinson's disease.Acta Neuropathol. Commun. 2015; 3: 12
- Colonic inflammation in Parkinson's disease.Neurobiol. Dis. 2013; 50: 42-48
- Protection of dopaminergic cells from MPP+-mediated toxicity by histone deacetylase inhibition.Brain Res. 2010; 1354: 172-178
- Histone deacetylase inhibitors up-regulate astrocyte GDNF and BDNF gene transcription and protect dopaminergic neurons.Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol./official Sci. J. Coll. Int. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008; 11: 1123-1134
- Sodium butyrate improves locomotor impairment and early mortality in a rotenone-induced Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.Neuroscience. 2013; 246: 382-390
- Rapid and sustained long-term decrease of fecal short-chain fatty acids in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, JPEN.J. Parenter. Enter. Nutr. 2015; : 569-577
- Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 and the commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 exhibit similar protective effects to induced barrier hyper-permeability in mice.Gut microbes. 2015; 6: 1-9
- Faecalibacterium prausnitzii prevents physiological damages in a chronic low-grade inflammation murine model.BMC Microbiol. 2015; 15: 67
Published online: August 27, 2016
Accepted: August 25, 2016
Received in revised form: August 11, 2016
Received: April 6, 2016
© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.