Association of coffee consumption and non-motor symptoms in drug-naïve, early-stage Parkinson's disease


      • There is an inverse association between coffee consumption and non-motor symptoms (NMSs) of drug-naïve PD patients.
      • Coffee drinkers had a lower severity in several sub-items of the mood/cognition domain compared to non-coffee drinkers.
      • It is important to consider the history of coffee consumption in the assessment of NMSs of PD patients.



      Coffee consumption has an inverse association with the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and non-motor symptoms (NMSs) in patients with PD.


      In this cross-sectional study, we included 196 early-stage, treatment-naïve PD patients. Coffee consumption history was obtained via semi-structured interviews. NMSs were assessed using the Non-Motor Symptom assessment scale (NMSS).


      Of the 196 patients with PD, 136 (69.3%) were categorized as coffee drinkers and 60 (30.6%) were non-drinkers. Coffee drinkers were younger, predominantly male, were younger in age at symptom onset, had lower Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor and Beck Depression Inventory scores, and higher Mini-Mental State Examination scores than non-coffee drinkers. After adjustment, coffee drinking was significantly inversely associated with the prevalence of lack of motivation, anhedonia, and lack of pleasure, which were less frequent in coffee drinkers. Total NMSS scores were lower in coffee drinkers than in non-drinkers (p = 0.047). In particular, coffee drinking was significantly associated with a reduced severity of the mood/cognition domain of NMSS (p = 0.003). After correcting for multiple testing, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of NMSs, but there were significant differences in the severity of NMSs between coffee drinkers and non-drinkers.


      There is a negative association between coffee consumption and the severity of the mood/cognition domain of NMSS in patients with PD. Clinicians should consider the history of coffee consumption in the assessment of NMSs in PD.


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