- Latah is a culture-specific syndrome characterized by exaggerated startle response, echolalia, palilalia, echopraxia, coprolalia, forced obedience and involuntary vocalization in response to startle. Latah is stimulus-induced and is associated with behavior and psychiatric features. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive description on latah from a regional perspective based on previous literature and clinical experiences and highlight the clinical characteristics of latah from a movement disorders perspective.
- ADAR1 variants are associated to rare and heterogenous neurological conditions, including Aicardi-Goutières syndrome type 6, bilateral striatal necrosis, and dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. Movement disorders (MDs) commonly occur in ADAR1-related diseases although a complete overview on the phenomenology has not been provided yet. Here, a cohort of 57 patients with ADAR1-related diseases, including 3 unpublished patients and 54 previously reported cases, was reviewed. Data on demographics, clinical features of MDs, genetics and biomarkers were collected and descriptive statistics, group analysis for genotype and logistic regression were run.
- Cerebellar ataxia is a hallmark of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency associated with COQ8A mutations. We present four patients, one with novel COQ8A pathogenic variants all with early, prominent handwriting impairment, dystonia and only mild ataxia. To better define the phenotypic spectrum and course of COQ8A disease, we review the clinical presentation and evolution in 47 reported cases. Individuals with COQ8A mutation display great clinical variability and unpredictable responses to CoQ10 supplementation.
- Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ATM gene with progressive neurological dysfunction, multisystem abnormalities and cancer predisposition. Classically, AT is associated with cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia and oculomotor apraxia. The aim of this review is to describe the movement disorders observed in patients with AT. Movement disorders in AT patients described in the literature are reviewed. The selected articles were analyzed with a focus on clinical presentation, presence of movement disorders, and atypical cases or variants of the syndrome.
- Sudden death in multiple system atrophy (MSA) usually occurs during sleep and was therefore attributed to suffocation resulting from vocal cord abductor paralysis, a characteristic laryngeal finding of MSA. This led to the use of tracheostomy and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) for the prevention of sudden death. However, neither method has been able to prevent sudden death, and both have occasionally precipitated treatment-related complications, including central sleep apneas and exacerbation of floppy epiglottis.
- With the advent of MRI, osmotic demyelination syndromes (ODS) are increasingly recognised to affect varied sites in the brain in addition to the classical central pontine lesion. Striatal involvement is seen in a large proportion of cases and results in a wide variety of movement disorders. Movement disorders and cognitive problems resulting from ODS affecting the basal ganglia may occur early in the course of the illness, or may present as delayed manifestations after the patient survives the acute phase.
- Tardive dyskinesia (TD) can be a disabling condition and is frequently refractory to medical therapy. Over the past decade there have been many reports of TD patients experiencing significant benefit with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi). The growing literature on this treatment option for TD consists predominantly of case reports and series. The reported benefit ranges widely, but the majority of cases experienced at least a 50% improvement in symptoms. The anatomical distribution of dyskinesias has not clearly influenced outcome, though fixed postures appear less likely to improve than phasic movements.
- Neuroferritinopathy is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the ferritin light chain polypeptide. It leads to iron deposition particularly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and motor cortex. The disease becomes clinically apparent in adulthood mainly with extrapyramidal signs and progresses slowly over decades. Patients usually have intact cognition until the very late stages of this disorder. Neuroimaging is the most helpful investigation and shows a very distinctive picture.
- An extensive variety of THAP1 sequence variants have been associated with focal, segmental and generalized dystonia with age of onset ranging from 3 to over 60 years. In previous work, we screened 1114 subjects with mainly adult-onset primary dystonia (Neurology 2010; 74:229-238) and identified 6 missense mutations in THAP1. For this report, we screened 750 additional subjects for mutations in coding regions of THAP1 and interrogated all published descriptions of THAP1 phenotypes (gender, age of onset, anatomical distribution of dystonia, family history and site of onset) to explore the possibility of THAP1 genotype–phenotype correlations and facilitate a deeper understanding of THAP1 pathobiology.